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Late 20th Century

Late 20th Century

The often short-sighted policies of the Cold War left a large number of unsolved hotspots in their wake. A number of what were once considered ‘proxy-wars’ between the East and the West in the varied conflict zones of Africa, the Middle East and Asia, transformed into new sorts of conflicts, usually fought for the personal advantage of local leaders or for natural wealth. Moreover, while earlier wars were usually fought by conventional armed forces, or saw a confrontation between one party supported by conventional armed forces against diverse insurgencies, those fought in the late 20th Century showed an entirely different character: the weaker of the involved parties began to fight through non-state actors, in the form of so-called proxies. Indeed, the combination of tensions lessened by the end of the Cold War and the proliferation of the mass media and its impact on public perception soon drove even superior nations – including liberal democracies – or private interests within these, to also engage in proxy warfare. Despite the end of the Cold War, whether in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America or the Middle East, the warfare of the late 20th Century thus experienced unexpected intensification.

NATO bombing of Yugoslavia (1999)

Second Chechen War (1999-2009)

Eritrean-Ethiopian War (1998-2000)

Second Congo War (1998-2003)

First Congo War (1996-1997)

First Chechen War (1994-1996)

Iraqi-Kurdish Civil War (1994-1997)

Yemeni Civil War (1994)

Sierra Leone Civil War (1991-2002)

Yugoslav Wars (1991-2001)

Gulf War (1990-1991)

Rwandan Civil War (1990-1993)

Somali Civil War (1990-present)

Maldives coup d'état attempt (Operation Cactus) (1988)

First Intifada (1987-1993)

Action in the Gulf of Sidra (1986)

Operation El Dorado Canyon (1986)

Operation Epervier (1986-2014)

South Lebanon War (1985-2000)

France in Central African Republic (1979-2015)

Chadian-Libyan Conflict (1978-1987)

Uganda-Tanzania War (1978-1979)

Libyan-Egyptian War (1977)

Mozambican Civil War (1977-1992)

Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990)

Northern Ireland Troubles (1969-1998)

Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970)

Eritrean War of Independence (1961-1991)

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