During the Old and Middle Kingdoms Ancient Egypt led the world in the construction of fortifications. The oldest was discovered on Elephantine Island and dates to c.2900 BC. This book investigates over 2000 years of Egyptian fortification including both fortified cities and military installations. It covers the most famous sites including the fortified town of Ayn Asil and the fortress of Buhen. The text also examines the specific defensive structures within the fortifications including gates walls and towers and looks at both the operation and social history of these ancient military strongholds.